Basic Postulations Materialism Coexistentialism               (Alternative) Spiritualism/Idealism 
Human – Human = Body – Human = conscious unit + physiochemical body.  Both are ‘substances’, have mass. -Human is not only the body. Discussion of ‘soul’ not clear.
– ‘Mind-Body’ problem unresolved -‘Mind’ is one of the faculties in the conscious-unit. The ‘conscious-unit’ communicates with the body via the brain. – Mind-Body relation unclear. Mind is not the body, nature of mind unclear
– ‘Consciousness’ arises from the brain– Brain (or states thereof) is the seer, doer and enjoyer.   ‘I’ exists in the brain – Conscious unit is a constitutionally-complete atom with 10 activities. It has ‘consciousness’ being in space. Space is ‘consciousnesses manifested via the conscious unit.- Conscious unit (Self) is the seer, doer & enjoyer. ‘I’ is the conscious unit. – Relationship between ‘conscious unit’ and ‘consciousness’ unclear. Talk of ‘universal consciousness’-                                            –                                       Seer, doer and enjoyer either a unit, or space, or almighty  unclear.   Nature and identity of ‘I’ unclear, ‘I’ denied.
Existence – Existence is unstable, indefinite, its purpose unclear- Fundamental source of energy in the universe unclear– Matter is indestructible neither created nor destroyed. Undergoes change-Existence is physiochemical matter. Attributes of ‘space’ unclear. Search for ‘God particle’ . Atom exists, but not recognized as unit of orderliness – Existence is stable, is coexistence, in harmony. There is definiteness & self-ingrained purpose in existence– Space itself is energy in equilibrium, but not an ‘activity’– Matter is indestructible, neither created nor destroyed. Undergoes change. Matter is conscious and physiochemical in nature. Both are ‘units’ & have mass.  There is no ‘centralization’ in existence.– Existence =  conscious and physiochemical nature saturated in all-pervasive-entity (space, omnipotence) –-Atom is the fundamental unit of orderliness – Existence is an outcome of divine powers, will- Notion of ‘Universal Energy’- Notion of creator, destroyer, sustainer, controller- Building blocks of existence unclear, mysticalVarious theories, atomists, etc.
Human  Purpose -Happiness =sensory pleasure = consumption, carnality. Profit to fulfill these.– ‘Purpose of living’ outside the domain of study. Randomization. -‘Resolution’ from wisdom = harmony in the Self = happiness.- Purpose of living is ‘Resolution’, awakening of all activities in conscious unit ‘jeevan’ & fulfill ‘universal human-goal’ on this planet – Happiness is in heaven, or good deeds here, etc- Purpose of living: liberation or moksha (release from rebirth)
Basic perspective (sight) Instability-indefiniteness-rooted physiochemical matter-centric thought Existence-rooted human centric contemplation – Mysticism-rooted god centric thought
Definition of Knowledge  Limited to Analytical-logical, sense-observed phenomena . -Knowledge of realistic-view of existence,                                                 -Knowledge of self, (jeevan)                     -Knowledge of humane conduct                                          – Wisdom, Science – Scriptural learning or direct insight (cannot be told in words, not expressed). Knowledge of ‘oneness’ or ‘pure-consciousness’
Object of study – Limited to physical-chemical nature (matter) – Material & conscious nature (Self) and space – Varies: Self, to scriptural
Method of Study -Mathematical, sensory-cognition, study of agitated states-Stress on self-verification, Objectivity Holistic-study of realities in existence using all faculties of cognition. Study of stable states– Stress on self-verification. ‘Assume only after you know’. ‘Objectivity’ is known by the ‘Subject’ (conscious unit) – Devotion, Meditative practicesAssumption prevalent, verification rarely proposed
Dimensions of study of reality Appearance & Properties (Only sensory-observable and measurable aspects: form-full dimensions of reality) Appearance, Properties, Innate-nature, Inseparability & Truth (sensory-observable as well as formless dimensions of reality) – Theories of Spirit, etc(only form-less dimensions)
Evidence, Proof Evidence of Instruments                  (basis is mathematical-logical-inferential-observed) Evidence of realization, behavior & experiment:        (basis is experiential, logical inferential & observed) Unclear, mystical   (basis is revelation, or experiential)
Laws – Laws of behavior in physiochemical matter, study of their properties by relative cause & effect All Laws are natural to existence. ‘Law, Restraint, & Balance’ in rest of nature. In Human: ‘Intellectual Law’ (within human), ‘Social Law-Justice’ (human-human relation), Natural-Law (human-nature relation).–Laws of relative cause & effect are for technology – in line with ‘natural laws’ Human Laws as revealed in the scriptures.Physiochemical laws not discussed.
Nomenclature Materialism (Science) Madhyasth-Darshan Coexistentialism Spiritualism, Pantheism, Super-Naturalism
Goal of Living, Goal of Human Society Survival of the fittest, Happiness via Consumption – 1) Intellectual resolution in every individual via knowledge; (harmony in individual)                                   – 2) Material Prosperity in every family, (harmony in family)                                        – 3) Fearlessness in Society,  (harmony in society)                         – 4) Coexistence with nature (harmony in nature) Union with God, Heaven.  Fulfillment of design will, as revealed in Scriptures. Or, release from cycle of rebirth
Lifestyle Comforts-accumulation Intellectual Resolution, Material Prosperity Devotion-renunciation
Result of Lifestyle Mass Consumption, Ecological problem, Earth in danger Right-utilization, fulfillment of human-relationships, balance in nature Heaven or individual-bliss
Aim of Education Survival, Competition Consciousness-development, human values, Coexistence Scriptural conformance
Result of Education – Excess-consumption, excess-profit, excess-carnality. Individualism Confidence in Self, Respect for excellence, sociable in behavior, self-sufficiency in occupation Renunciation or Communalism (communal-mentality)
Mentality Will not produce, Will consume Will produce, Will consume Will not produce, Will not consume, or reduction of needs
Desirable Outcomes so far Progress in food-shelter-decoration & remote-communication, remote-viewing & remote-transport Proposed: Undivided Human Society & Universal Orderliness  – Human Language                – Messages, sermons  & well-wishes for goodness
Undesirable Outcomes so far Pollution & Resource Depletion, ecological crisis -Individualism.                             – Rejection of alternative modes of knowledge To be studied, lived & found out – Rejection of Logic                – communal-mentality: divisions in humankind based on differing assumptions
Fundamental Basis: (Darsana or realistic-view) Study of physical-chemical reality: via ‘relative cause & effect’ : accepted logical and mathematical hypothesis Study & realization of Actuality, Reality & Truth : as realistic-view (darsana)  – ‘absolute truth & ultimate cause’ Divine Decree, Scriptural authority
Basis in Thought (vaada, or ‘ism) – Conflict-centric Materialism- Struggle-centric Humanism – Resolution-centric Materialism– Realization/Experience Centric Spiritualism– Behavior-centric Humanism – Mysticism-centric Spiritualism
Basis in Living
(shaastra, or code of conduct)
– Consumptive Sociology– Exploitative Economics- Sex-oriented Psychology – Behavioral Sociology- Cyclical Economics- Human-consciousness oriented Psychology – Scriptural Sociology
Law Frameworks – Constitution Differs by nation-state – Humane Constitution: based on human code of ethics: coherence in education, human conduct, constitution & human-systems -Divine Design, or ancient written documents


-shriram n, student, jan 2012